ENGA14 Research Paper Layout Guide
ENGA14 [FIN-1] Finnish Institutions Research Paper (Hopkins)
English Translation and Interpreting (ETI) Curriculum
University of Tampere, Finland
These guidelines should be used for ENGA14 papers. HTML versions should
use the style of the [former] TRENPK5
template, which is further described in Basic Principles of Good Web Page Design.
- Write your paper in the third person. The first person may be used in
Author Notes or Appendices, but not in the paper text.
- Do not use a separate title or 'cover' page. Follow the template style with the title and author
name at the top of the first text page. Choose a title which clearly
describes your intended treatment of the topic. After each draft,
check to ensure that your title and content match.
- Underneath the title, beside your name, put the term and year in
which you have written the paper and the USA/GB language designation as
- Do not use a Table of Contents. These are often useful for longer
papers (for example, a Master's thesis), but are seldom practical for
"shorter" papers such as this one, particularly for html editions.
- Submit initial drafts of your paper as WORD printouts. With these
drafts, please print only on one side of the paper
and do NOT staple the pages together, as this will greatly simplify
the papers' markup and discussion. Please also number your pages
(handwritten numbers are also acceptable).
- Note carefully the following structural aspects of the paper:
- Papers will have at least three basic 'sections': an (1)
introduction which outlines the points to be discussed and
the relevance (see below) of your paper; the (2) body, which
establishes the foundation for and then systematically develops these
points, and a (3) conclusion, which briefly summarizes the
points you have discussed and your summary findings.
[The introduction must clearly identify your research
question(s) (which should be in question format). The research
question provides the focus for what your paper will discuss and
why you are discussing it. The body of the paper will then review
source material relevant to your topic (research question) and
develop your explication of the topic. The conclusion summarizes how the
body of your paper has addressed and answered the research question(s)
posed in the introduction.]
Papers which include an independent research component might be
thought to have a fourth section, in the sense that the research purposes,
methodology and findings need to be explictly described, although
technically the research component is integral to the body of
Each paper will also have a Works Cited listing and normally
also (author and/or bibliographical) Notes.
- The opening paragraphs, or introductory section, must clearly
identify the research question, e.g. what you are writing about
and why: it must establish the relevance of your topic to Finnish
Institutions [for the FIN-1 course or to the other course in
question if the paper is not being written for FIN-1]. It must establish
what new information or aspects of your topic the reader will learn by
reading your paper. In other words, why should someone read your
paper; what will they learn from it? What new information
will you present? What difference will it make to know this? These
points must be perfectly clear from the first few paragraphs.
- However, do not begin your paper with lengthy, awkward 'aims' or
'purposes' or 'attempts' of what you 'hope' to do. Rather, the title and
opening paragraphs should present your intentions in a brief, informative
and interest-attracting fashion. As examples of beginnings, see National Romanticism
in Finnish Architecture and The History, Art and
Architecture of Tampere Cathedral, among others.
As seen from the above papers, rhetorical questions which 'set up' the
content and subsequent conclusions are the preferred style for the
introduction. See Finnish Maternity
and Child-Care Clinics, Ansa Ikonen and Tauno
Palo: Finland's Idolised Film Stars and the Nation's Icons, and Finnish Territorial Waters and Naval
Surveillance as further examples.
- NB: Do not use "Introduction" as a section
heading to label your introductory paragraphs. While you might do this
for a much longer paper (which also had a cover page, table of contents,
preface, etc., before the beginning of the text), it is self-evident for a
shorter paper, the title of which appears immediately above, that the
"introduction" will be those paragraphs immediately following the title.
- Also, do not cite source material in the introduction
(or in the conclusion). Citations belong in the body, where you develop
the idea(s) of your paper, based on the sources you have consulted.
Any material mentioned in the introduction or conclusion must be
covered in detail in the body; this is where the citations should
appear. However, if you use short direct quotations for special
effect in your introductory paragraphs, these of course must be cited. The
paper on The Victims of the Finnish Civil
War has an example of such a quotation.
- Section headings should clearly describe the content and
logical relevance of the section which follows. Use fully descriptive
section headings; one or two words will seldom suffice. [e.g. instead of
just "History" something like "History of the Finnhorse in Military
Hospital Transportation During the Winter War" would be much better.
Better yet would be to put the section header in question form, such as
"How Was the Finnhorse Used in Military Transportation During the Winter
After each revision of your paper, check that your section headers
[still] accurately describe the section's content. Informative section
headers are essential for readers to easily follow the logical development
of your ideas, or find particular sections of interest within the paper.
- Do not number sections of the text unless your paper is highly
sequential and numbers are necessary to keep the order clear (rarely the
case for FIN-1 papers). Otherwise, use bold-font section headings (for
example use the <Hx> html command (e.g. <H4>), which
will automatically double-space the section header from the text before
and after, provide boldface, and be one size larger than the Arial 2 font
used in the paper template. Numbers may be used to list examples, etc.,
within the text.
- Just as the opening paragraphs should not be labelled
"Introduction," the concluding paragraphs should also not be
labelled "Conclusion". Instead, use a descriptive section header
which refers to the points of your concluding section.
- Do not put hyperlinks to web sources in the body of the paper. Put
source hyperlinks only in your Works Cited listing, and/or in Author Notes
or Appendices, as appropriate. You may use internal
hyperlinks from in-text citations to your Works Cited if you wish.
- When polishing your html version, use your web browser's "Print
Preview" to check that your paper will print with all details intact. If
you have used images, tables, etc., in your paper this step is
essential! The width of single images, tables, charts, etc.,
should not exceed 700 dpi when you are sizing them in HTML to avoid the
distortion or loss of part or all of the image when printing. Images
should be sized to be 'readable', but in aesthetic proportion to the text
and 'economical' for printouts. Larger images should appear later in the
paper, to allow time for them to 'load' while the reader is looking at
your opening text. Do not place images in either the introduction or the
- All images (tables, etc.) should have explanatory captions (use a
size 1 font) even if the text has also referred to the image or
table as well as a source citation. If you have created your own
image (table, chart, map, etc.) from data which was in another format,
cite both the source of the data and yourself as the
source of the image.
- Citations should follow the MLA 'house style' as covered in the TRENPK6 Academic
Citation and Documentation course and illustrated in the online paper
- Please ask if you have questions about the logic or procedure behind
any of the above, or about layout, citations, etc. One of our main
objectives is to learn proper procedure for academic writing and layout
issues that will certainly arise again in future university work.
Research & Academic Writing
Last Updated 05 January 2013