Finnish Maternity and Child Care Clinics
Elisa Kapanen, Spring 2007 (US)
A FAST-FIN-1 (TRENAK1) Finnish Institutions Research Paper
FAST Area Studies Program
Department of Translation Studies, University of Tampere
Finland enjoys a high international reputation for its maternity and child
care facilities. The Finnish maternity and child care system is unique in
the world, reaching 99 percent of all families residing in Finland. It
dates back to the 1920’s when pediatrics professor Arvo Ylppö initiated
the first maternity clinics. After the Second World War special
legislation was passed to establish free-of-charge municipal maternity
care for all pregnant women. The underlying thought of the legislation was
to look after the medical health of the mother and the child and thus
promote the birth of more babies, who would then grow to be healthier
children and adults than in previous generations.
The effects of this new maternity and child care system were, and still
are, enormous. Modern Finland has one of the lowest infant mortality rates
in the world. Life-threatening diseases, such as polio and
whooping-cough, have been extinct from Finland for generations thanks to
the nation-wide vaccination programs offered by child care clinics.
Today maternity and child care clinics operate as a part of the Finnish
national health care clinics, and are regulated by nation-wide guidelines.
The aim of these services continues to be to ensure the health of pregnant
women and young children. However, many changes have taken place in the
practices and aims of both these clinics as Finnish society has
What are the practices and aims of Finnish maternity and child care
clinics? How has their role changed in recent years as Finnish society has
developed? What are their modern applications?
The Clinics' Role in Massively Reducing Infant Mortality During the
The achievements of Finnish maternity and child care clinics can be
clearly observed by looking at statistics of infant mortality rates in
Finland over the past century. At the beginning of the 20th century, 153
infants out of 1000 died 15.3 percent of all babies born in
Finland. This number may seem surprisingly large, but can be explained by
the fact that in those days Finland was a rural society with a largely
poor population which was separated by long distances. Most Finnish women
of the time did hard, physical labor even if they were pregnant. The
delivery usually took place at home; in most cases no doctors or medical
personnel were available if something went wrong. Moreover, doctors' fees
were too expensive for the peasantry, and there was no public health care
system to cover the costs. Even if a family could afford a doctor, it was
likely that the closest one would be hundreds of kilometers away.
In the 1920s, when Arvo Ylppö initiated the first maternity clinics, the
figure was still alarmingly high, at 9.6 percent. After the clinics had
operated for a decade the number had gone down to 7.5 percent. In 1940
the infant mortality rate rose again, to 8.8 percent, most likely due to
the Second World War. In 1940 Finland was fighting a war with Russia, the
economic situation of the country was poor, and most doctors and nurses
had their hands full taking care of wounded soldiers and civilians. There
were simply no resources to take care of pregnant women and their babies.
After the war, special legislation was passed to guarantee
free-of-charge maternity care for all Finnish women. The effects were
enormous. By 1950, infant mortality rate had dropped to 4.3 percent, half
of what it had been in 1940. Since the 1950s, there has been a steady
decline in the infant mortality rate in Finland. In 1960 the number was
2.1%, in 1970 1.3% and in 1980 the number had declinded to 0.76%. By 2000
the number was as low as 0.38 percent (Tilastokeskus, Imeväiskuolleisuus).
A Mother-to-be's First Steps at A Maternity Clinic
Maternity clinics focus on the health and well-being of pregnant women and
their children. They screen the progress of the pregnancy regularly and
provide information on everyday-life and proper nutrition for pregnant
women. Delivery training is also provided to both of the parents-to-be.
Maternity clinics also pay attention to the psychological well-being of
the families by supporting parenthood and providing relationship
counseling when necessary (Mykkänen, Äitiysneuvola).
A mother-to-be needs to contact a maternity clinic in the municipality in
which she lives as soon as she discovers her pregnancy. At the very latest
a pregnant woman must visit a maternity clinic before the fourth month of
the pregnancy. After that she has the right to receive maternity benefits
In practice the maternity benefit means two options: the mother-to-be
can choose either a maternity pack, which includes various articles of
baby clothing and other objects needed to care for a new-born (view the
contents of the 2006 maternity pack here),
or a tax-free sum of money in the amount of 140 euros. Maternity benefits
are raised exponentially in the case of a multiple pregnancy. In practice
the parents of twins get three maternity packs (one for the first twin and
two for the second) or the amount of 420 euros, parents of triplets six
maternity packs (one for the first triplet, two for the second, and three
for the third) or the amount of 840 euros. In case of twins or triplets
the parents-to-be can also mix and match the benefits, e.g. choose to have
two maternity packs and 140 euros if they are expecting twins.
Adoptive parents of children under the age of 18 are also entitled to
the same maternity benefits, but obviously parents adopting older children
tend to choose the cash compensation rather than the pack (Kela).
A mother-to-be’s first visit to the maternity clinic must be made between
pregnancy weeks 8-12. During this first visit, she will receive
information on pregnancy and the development of the fetus in general. Her
blood hemoglobin level and blood pressure are tested to make sure these
are within healthy limits. All pregnant women are also tested for HIV,
syphilis and hepatitis B. In case of a positive result in any of the
tests, preventative measures can be taken in order to make sure the
condition is not passed on to the child.
The blood group of the mother-to-be is also determined, first of all so
that the hospital is aware of which blood they can give the mother in case
of extensive blood loss during a miscarriage or child birth, and secondly
in order to pre-scan the possibility of a Rhesus-negative mother expecting
a Rhesus-positive child. In this case it is possible that the
immunological system of the mother will start to act against the Rhesus
factor in the child’s blood, causing a serious condition, or even
miscarriage. The condition can be prevented by an anti-D immunoglobulin
injection 1 . The amount of antibodies in
the blood of the pregnant woman is also determined in order to make sure
that her defensive system is working properly (Mykkänen, Äitiysneuvola).
Medical Check-ups at Maternity Clinics
Between pregnancy weeks 12-13 pregnant women have their first medical
check-up, which is conducted by a physician. During this check-up the
woman receives a basic gynecological examination, the heartbeat of the
fetus is monitored and the blood pressure and hemoglobin level of the
mother-to-be are determined. The maternity clinic also keeps track of
changes in the woman’s weight (Mykkänen, Äitiysneuvola).
During an average pregnancy, a Finnish woman has between 12 and 15 visits
to the maternity clinic. Before pregnancy week 30, women usually have one
check-up every month; after that, check-ups are conducted every two weeks.
Of these visits 2 or 3 are medical check-ups by a doctor, and the rest are
conducted by a public-health nurse. Most (but not all) Finnish health care
clinics also provide a free ultrasonic examination, which is conducted
between the 12th and 16th week of pregnancy. Finnish women can also choose
to take a screening test between pregnancy weeks 9-12 during which the
possibility of Down-syndrome can be checked (Mykkänen, Äitiysneuvola).
In case there are any abnormalities in the progress of the pregnancy, high
blood pressure of the mother for instance, the monitoring will be more
constant and there will be more visits to the doctor. Women are also
encouraged to contact their maternity clinic if they detect something that
worries them, or if they have any further questions.
Fathers-to-be are strongly encouraged to accompany their partners2 when they visit the maternity clinics. It is
not essential that they be present during each routine examination, but
most fathers are eager to attend at least those visits during which the
heartbeat of the fetus is monitored and when the ultrasonic examination is
conducted (Mykkänen, Äitiysneuvola).
Preparing for The Delivery and Giving Birth
The actual delivery usually takes place in a hospital. The maternity
clinic refers a woman to the delivery hospital closest to her home,
although in some largely-populated municipalities the mother-to-be can
choose from several different hospitals. It is also possible to visit the
maternity ward and meet the staff beforehand. Mothers-to-be can also give
instructions on any preferences they might have before the delivery. This
includes making choices such as whether or not you choose to have chemical
pain relief, how you wish the delivery to take place3 and whether or not you wish your child to
receive formula after he/she is born4.
The hospital will take these wishes into account and act accordingly as
far as it is possible without risking the well-being of either the mother
or the child (Synnytystoiveita).
Many women are nervous about, or even afraid of, the prospect of delivery.
This is especially true for women having their first child and for women
who have had a previous, traumatic delivery experience. This has been
taken into account at maternity clinics that offer a service in which the
mother-to-be will meet a mid-wife who specializes in delivery fear, and
will discuss the different stages of delivery with the prospective mother.
It is also possible to have meetings with a psychologist or a psychiatrist
if the situation is really difficult (Synnytyspelkopoliklinikka).
Home delivery is still a marginal phenomenon in Finland. This is partly
due to the fact that the Finnish health care system does not support home
delivery. According to a doctoral dissertation published in 2001, only
0.01 percent of Finnish women choose to deliver their child at home.
However, roughly 6 percent of women would be interested in delivering at
home if the public health care system would support it (Hirvonen). Many
women feel that the home environment is a comforting and relaxing place to
deliver. Home delivery also enables the woman to choose exactly how she
delivers. Modern medical technology enables first-aid procedures in the
home environment in case of excess bleeding and loss of oxygen. If a woman
decides to give birth at home it is her own responsibility to find a
mid-wife who specializes in home-delivery. The expenses of home-delivery
are not covered by the health care system (Mykkänen,
Within two weeks after delivery a public-health nurse will visit the new
family in their home in order to ensure the well-being of both the mother
and the newborn. After this, the family will no longer visit a maternity
clinic; instead the baby’s health will be monitored during visits to a
child care clinic (Mykkänen, Äitiysneuvola).
General Practices of Child Care Clinics
The work done at child care clinics focuses on promoting the health of
children, preventing disease and diagnosing conditions at an early age.
The physical, psychological and social development of a child is carefully
monitored and supported. The effects of the environment in which a child
grows up in are also taken into account. This means making sure that the
home environment is safe for the child and promotes healthy development
Nowadays child care clinics are instructed to pay special attention to
families that have psycho-social difficulties. These include families with
mental or chronic physical conditions, substance abuse, constant or
violent arguments, marital problems or financial difficulties. In case of
serious problems, the family in question will be referred on to the proper
instances (Lastenneuvolaopas 26-27).
Medical Check-ups and Monitoring at Child Care Clinics
Infants are monitored in child care clinics at constant, close intervals
due to their rapid growth and development. In practice this means that an
infant is taken to a child care clinic once a month until he/she is six
months old; after that a check-up is done every two months until the child
is two years old. A child between the ages of 2 and 6 visits a child care
clinic once a year. Children and families in need of special attention
visit a child care clinic on a more frequent basis, according to a special
schedule that is developed for them personally. Health care workers also
provide families with house calls if the situation so requires, e.g. in
case of the mother suffering from severe post-partum depression or a
serious physical condition (Lastenneuvolaopas 9-11).
During each of these visits the child is measured and weighed and his/her
eyesight and hearing are monitored. At infancy children are mostly
monitored to scan for mental or physical handicaps or defects in the
sensory system. At the age of 2 it is possible to recognize mild handicaps
such as speech or attention disorders. Thus children between the ages of 2
and 5 are monitored for the development of their speech and cognitive
skills. In case any abnormalities are detected, the child in question will
be referred on to a specialist. The costs are also covered by the public
health care system. After a child turns 7 years old, he/she will no longer
visit a child care clinic, but his/her healthcare is provided by the
public school system (Lastenneuvolaopas 9-22).
Dental Care Provided by Child Care Clinics
It is also the responsibility of child care clinics to provide dental care
for all pre-school children. Dental care focuses on teaching the children
the basics of dental hygiene and dietary influences on their teeth. One of
its goals is also to educate parents on the usual dental diseases and
measures that can prevent them. After a child starts to attend school (at
the age of 7 in Finland) dental care is provided by the public school
system (Lastenneuvolaopas 23-25).
Vaccinations – Keeping up The Good Work
Vaccination is also an important part of the Finnish child care system.
Vaccinations are free-of-charge, provided during normal check-ups at the
child care clinics, but voluntary. 90 percent of all Finnish parents
choose to vaccinate their children against such serious diseases as polio,
diphtheria, tetanus, whooping-cough, measles, mumps, rubella and
infections caused by hemophilia-B bacteria (Rokotukset).
One of the major achievements of the Finnish child care system is that all
of these diseases are nearly extinct in Finland. On the other hand, a
number of Finnish parents are refusing to vaccinate their children5. This is due to the fact that some studies
indicate that there is a connection between vaccinations and certain
malfunctions in children’s immune systems, which in effect can cause
serious conditions such as autism, allergies, diabetes, MS-disease and
deterioration of the central nervous system.
However, it is disputable whether vaccination has any effect on the
development of any of these diseases. Some children can also be allergic
to some of the ingredients of vaccinations and can thus develop symptoms
varying from a reddish, itchy rash to high fever (Nieminen). To some
parents the risk of obtaining any of the conditions above from the
vaccination seems higher than being infected by the actual disease the
vaccination is for, since the diseases have in practice vanished from
Finland anyway. However, this way of thinking adds to the risk of
reintroducing these diseases in Finland, as it is possible that an
unvaccinated child would contract one or more of the diseases e.g. on a
family holiday outside of Finland, or via contact with an affected
foreigner visiting Finland. For this reason child care clinics strongly
advise all parents, including those who may be unwilling to do so, to
vaccinate their children (Lastenneuvola 178-179).
It is worth noting that most parents who have doubts on whether or not to
vaccinate their children do not refuse to give them any vaccinations, but
rather choose to vaccinate their children only against the most common or
dangerous diseases, such as polio. The most common vaccination that
parents refuse to give their children in Finland is the combination
vaccination that gives protection against measles, mumps and rubella
Effects of The 1990s Recession on the Clinics' Funding and Services
At the beginning of the 1990’s Finland experienced an economic recession.
This resulted in less funding for public health care, including maternity
and child care clinics. In addition, municipalities were given more
freedom to self-govern, and the general norms governing maternity and
child care clinics were relaxed. This is why, even today, different
municipalities offer different services to their clients. There are
municipalities which offer more and better services and those that offer
less. The lack of funding combined with the freedom to cut down services
has led, over the past decade, to a decline in the services provided by
both maternity and child care clinics.
As a result, the staff of the clinics have often found that they lacked
the resources which would enable them to take care of families as
individuals. They have also found they are unable to recognize and solve
many of the problems the young families were experiencing due to the lack
of time and funding (Hakulinen-Viitanen 21-23).
Also the problems of the children themselves have changed over the years.
Contemporary children are more likely to have psycho-social problems than
the previous generations. These include symptoms such as learning
disabilities, feelings of insecurity, and obesity. Often possible
mental-health issues, substance abuse and violence within the family unit
are reflected in the children. According to a study conducted in 2004,
between 10 to 30 percent of all Finnish children require special attention
provided by child care clinics (Hakulinen-Viitanen 21).
In short, the range of concerns both clinics are expected to address has
increased at the same time as their funding and staffing has decreased.
However, despite this very negative-sounding development, both the
maternity and child care clinics are continuing to work hard to keep up
with the modern pace of life, as can be witnessed by the following
overview of their more recent activities.
A New Priority: Encouraging The Early Role of The Father
Traditional childcare focused highly on the role of the mother during the
infancy of the child. The mother was thought to be the sole care giver.
The role of the father was emphasized later on, when the infant had become
a toddler, and the symbiotic relationship between the mother and the child
had to be broken. Previously it was even thought to be harmful to the
development of the child if the father took an active role in child care
from early on. However, this view has been greatly challenged in modern
times (Säävälä 4-5, 7).
In 2001 the Finnish Ministry of Social Affairs and Health issued a
guidebook to maternity and child care clinic workers which focused on the
role of the father from early on, and how it should be reinforced.
Research done prior to the publication of the guidebook showed that the
infant benefits greatly if both parents are available as primary care
givers. In the case of a sudden unavailability of the mother, the child
would have a safe relationship with his father to compensate for the loss
of the mother. Infants with two primary care givers have also been shown
to experience more stimuli and feelings of security than those infants
whose primary care giver is solely the mother (Säävälä 6-7).
In addition to this it has been shown that the close involvement of the
father benefits the whole family. An active focus on childcare by the
father enables the mother to rest and maintain her social life outside the
family circle, which in effect makes her a better care giver. It is also
easier for the mother to return to work if the father is active in sharing
the child care responsibilities. Research also shows that fathers who took
part in childcare early on continue to have a close relationship with
their children later in life (Säävälä 7-9).
One factor which also promotes the need for a greater role of the father
is post-partum depression, a serious condition affecting as many as 10 to
20 percent of all women who have given birth. In families affected by this
condition it is absolutely vital that the father is able to take
responsibility for some of the childcare in order to ensure the security
and wellbeing of the infant. One of the modern goals of child care clinics
is to recognize the families affected by postpartum depression and to give
tools to the father so he can take an active role as the primary care
giver of the child while the mother is unable to take part (Säävälä
Maternity clinics in Finland provide a specific family training for
couples who are expecting their first child. It is estimated that 80 to 90
percent of all fathers-to-be attend these meetings with their spouse. As a
part of this family training some maternity clinics also offer special
“father groups”. In these groups fathers-to-be discuss issues concerning
pregnancy, delivery and fatherhood among their peers. They have a chance
to share their joys and fears among men who are in similar situations. The
goal of these meetings is to prepare and support men who will soon become
fathers (Säävälä 29-34).
After the infant is born, some men continue to share their experiences in
father-child groups. The idea of these groups is largely the same. The men
of the group meet approximately once a month, and bring their babies with
them. The discussions vary from delivery experiences to relationship
issues and everyday life with the newborn. The goal of father-child groups
is to reinforce the positive experiences and provide an outlet for the
negative. The idea is to support the new fathers in their role as a parent
and give them confidence to care for the child (Säävälä 38-43).
Preventing Divorce and Supporting Single Mothers
In the year 2000 one in five of all Finnish children lived with single
mothers. The increase in the number of divorces and single parenting,
especially during and after the economic recession of the 1990’s, has led
to a large amount of discussion on whether it is harmful for children to
be raised without a father. Some go so far as to say that single parenting
causes various problems in society, ranging from teen pregnancy to
violence. Others state that it is not so clear cut, that the lack of a
father as such causes none of these problems as long as the mother is
capable of filling the roles of both parents. Obviously it is more
demanding to raise children as a single parent. Child care is less
demanding if two people take part in it; two people can fulfill the social
and emotional needs of a child more efficiently than one (Säävälä
The growing number of single mothers in Finland has also been taken into
account in maternity and child care clinics. More emphasis has been put on
supporting the relationship of parents-to-be and couples with young
children. Statistics show that most of the couples that do split up, do so
when their children are young. Maternity and child care clinics are trying
to work against these statistics by offering professional counseling to
all couples who are willing to take the help (Säävälä 10-11).
The Immigrant Population in Maternity and Child Care Clinics
According to the law, all families living in Finland are entitled to free
medical care provided by health care clinics. This includes the services
provided by maternity and child care clinics. As the number of refugees
and asylum seekers in Finland started to grow during the 1980’s and
1990’s, it became necessary to create guidelines for the usage of
maternity and child care clinics so that they would also be capable of
serving people from non-Finnish origins (Lastenneuvola 249).
To solve the problem, it is necessary for the workers of maternity and
child care clinics to familiarize themselves with the culture of the
immigrant client. They also need to take into account different cultural
habits – e.g. in many cultures women are not used to communicating with
male doctors, especially gynecologists. It is vital to offer these women
the opportunity to meet with female medical personnel.
Interpreters are used to enable fluent communication between the client
and the clinic personnel. Many immigrants from third world countries have
a profound distrust of officials of any field. It is therefore very
important to make sure the immigrant client understands that the
interpreter, as well as all health care workers, is bound to professional
secrecy. Often particularly when the conversation is between women
and their physicians it also helps if the interpreter is female.
The costs of the interpreter services are covered by the municipality, and
the costs can be heavy; sometimes it is difficult, if not impossible, to
find an interpreter of a rare language. However, it is worth noting that
the children of the family are never used as interpreters in maternity and
child care clinics (Lastenneuvola 249).
Refugees and asylum seekers are most likely to come from difficult
circumstances, such as war zones or refugee camps. Many have been
subjected to mental and physical torture, and most have witnessed very
disturbing things in their countries of origin. It is therefore important
that the personnel of maternity and child care clinics have the tools and
the information to recognize those immigrant clients who may be in need of
psychological aid. These clients will be referred on to receive
professional aid elsewhere and expenses will be covered by the public
health care system (Lastenneuvola 251).
Maternity and child care clinic workers need to bear in mind that the
cultural traits of immigrants must be respected. This comes into the
picture especially when dietary habits are discussed. The guidelines that
are given to mainstream Finnish clients often cannot be used, because
people coming from different religious and cultural backgrounds may have
different cultural habits. Therefore the individual dietary habits of each
immigrant family are discussed and evaluated to see if any changes are
indicated. The most common dietary problem among immigrants from warm
climates is the need to supplement their diets with foods that are rich in
vitamin-D. The human body usually produces vitamin-D from sunlight, but
during the Finnish winter months there is not enough sunlight. Foods which
are rich in Vitamin-D and easily available in Finland include dairy
products and fish (Lastenneuvola 249).
While cultural and religious traits of others must be respected in
general, there are also instances in which these very traits act in
contrast to the Finnish laws. One of the responsibilities of maternity and
child care clinics is to explain the laws and regulations of Finland,
especially when it comes to family life and children. It is categorically
explained that physical punishment of children is a criminal offence in
Finland, as is also the custom of female circumcision in some Islamic
cultures, even if the girl is taken to another country where the operation
would be performed. The rights of women and the concept of domestic
violence are also discussed (Lastenneuvola 249-250).
In many municipalities child care clinics have also set up peer groups for
immigrants of the same cultural origins. These groups make the process of
familiarization into Finnish culture easier and also minimize the risk of
seclusion from society (Lastenneuvola 249).
The Latest Development – The Net Clinic
The latest development in the field of maternity and child care clinics
relies on modern information and communication technology. In 1997 a
project called the Beginning of Life was launched at the Polytechnic of
Pohjois-Savo in Kuopio. Its purpose was to develop an online maternity
clinic in order to make the available maternity services more efficient.
The first version of what became known as the Net Clinic was tested in
December 1999. In December 2000 the testing of the clinic was completed
and the whole concept was revised, based on the experiences of the test
users, to better serve the general public. After the revision the concept
was marketed to municipalities wishing to offer this service to their
The underlying idea of the Net Clinic is to provide further information to
pregnant families concerning pregnancy, delivery, taking care of an infant
and looking after the well-being of the whole family. The registered users
of the Net Clinic have the possibility of consulting experts anonymously
via a protected internet connection.6
They are guaranteed a personal reply. These families also have a
possibility to take part in peer group discussions online; these groups
function on an anonymous basis. In order to further enhance the
reliability of the Net Clinic, all experts who take part in the
discussions or answer the questions use their real names and titles. It is
important to note that the online maternity clinic does not function as an
alternative to the traditional Finnish maternity clinic. It is merely
targeted as a supplementary function to the original clinics
The Present State of Maternity and Child Care Clinics
Finnish maternity and child care clinics have made a world of difference
in the development and well-being of the Finnish nation. Infant mortality
rates in Finland have been extremely low for decades. Vaccination programs
have been successful. Moreover free maternity and child care enables all
women, regardless of their social or economical status, to have a healthy
pregnancy, and all of their offspring to have a healthy childhood. This
goal is achieved through the medical help, check-ups and information
provided by maternity and child care clinics.
In contemporary times psycho-social disorders are more common than ever
among both the child and adult population. The social and economical
hardships of parents are also directly mirrored on their children.
Substance abuse by parents is growing alarmingly. Single parent households
need extra support so they can maintain a healthy environment for their
children to grow up in. The growing immigrant population is in need of
specialized maternity and child care counseling. These are just some of
the pressing modern issues that are dealt with daily by maternity and
child care clinics in Finland.
It remains open whether Finnish maternity clinics should support home
delivery. There is a growing demand for such a service, but it would
require considerable additional costs, and the risks involved are still
debated. Whether home delivery will be encouraged in the future remains to
Contemporary maternity and child care clinics are putting a greater focus
on the wellbeing of the whole family. The attention is not only on the
mother and the child: fathers are also encouraged to take part in
childcare. Couples counseling is organized to all parents who wish to
Maternity and child care clinics are also beginning to use modern
information technology to their advantage. Services like the Net Clinic
will certainly be utilized as a part of their operations in the
- Anti-D immunoglobulin is manufactured from the plasma of human blood.
It is administered as an injection in a treatment known as anti-D
prophylaxis. The Anti-D immunoglobulin destroys the Rhesus-positive blood
cells that have gained access to the Rhesus-negative mother’s circulation
- The word "partner" was used here instead of "spouse," because
currently 40 percent of Finnish children are born out of wedlock
- There are many alternatives positions in which you can give
birth. Some women prefer to stand up and others to squat, while most
simply lay on their backs while delivering. Some hospitals offer also
specific delivery tools, such as the delivery pool, where a woman can give
birth in a pool of water.
- Some women wish their child to receive only breast milk. However,
unless otherwise notified, current practice is that new-born babies are
given formula if the mother is unable to produce enough breast milk, or if
the child is initially unable to feed from its mother.
- It is difficult to state exactly how many parents refuse to vaccinate
their children, because the numbers vary greatly and children are
vaccinated at different ages. A study conducted in 1999 showed that 6.7%
of Finnish children did not have all of the vaccinations recommended by
Finnish health care officials (the study used a random sample of 1000
Finnish children). In 3.1% of these cases the lack of one or more
vaccinations was due to the parents having refused permission for the
vaccination. However, only one of the children who took part in the study
had not been given any vaccinations (Nieminen 11).
- Finns are eager users of modern information technology. According to a
study conducted in 2003, 45 percent of all Finnish households had an
internet connection at home (Tilastokeskus, Internet).
- Hakulinen-Viitanen, Tuovi, Marjaana Pelkonen, and Arja
Haapakorva. Äitiys- ja lastenneuvolatyö Suomessa. Helsinki:
Sosiaali- ja terveysministeriö, 2005.
- Hirvonen, Hanna. Väitöskirja
synnytyksen valinnoista. 5 February 2006.
Raskaudenaikaiset veriryhmävasta-ainaseulonnat tärkeitä jokaisessa
- Kela. Äitiysavustus. Site consulted 3 December 2006.
- Lastenneuvolaopas. Lääkintöhallitus. Helsinki:
- Mykkänen, Eeva. Synnytäisinkö
kotona? 28 June 2006
- - - - . Äitiysneuvola
huolehtii tulevasta äidistä ja lapsesta. 27 September 2006.
- Nettineuvola-projekti. Site consulted 20 November 2006.
- Nieminen, Ulla, Tarja Simonen and Johanna Tinnilä.
Vanhempien kokemuksia rokotuksista.
lapsiperheiden tukena. Sosiaali ja terveysministeriö. Opas
työntekijöille.Site consulted 13 November 2006.
Sosiaali ja terveysministeriö. 13 November 2006.
Site consulted 2 December 2006.
Site consulted 2 December 2006.
- Säävälä, Hannu, Eero Keinänen, and Jari Vainio. Isä neuvolassa –
työvälineitä ja ajatuksia vauvaa odottavien ja hoitavien isien
kanssa työskenteleville. Helsinki: Tasa-arvoasiain neuvottelukunta,
Sosiaali ja terveysministeriö, 2001.
- Tilastokeskus. Imeväiskuolleisuus
vuosina 1751-2004. Site consulted 9 May 2007.
- - - - . Internet
kotitalouksissa yleisempi kuin kaapeli-tv tai satelliittiantenni.
23 October 2003.
- - - - .
Yhä useamman lapsen vanhemmat asuvat erillään. 11.4.2007.
Social and Gender Issues & Policy Papers Index
Index of All Finnish Institutions Papers
Last Updated 24 April 2010