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Tampere University Press

From Manuscript to Book – Guidelines for Authors and Editors

Copyrights and Publishing Permission

The author – and in the case of edited works, the editor – must be aware of the copyright policies of citations, pictures, translations etc. included in the manuscript. If the material cannot be used without permission, it is the responsibility of the author or the editor to obtain it from the copyright holder. This rule applies to both print and online publications.

  • Request permission to publish a citation in the printed and the electronic version of your work, if the length of the citation exceeds the standard length.
  • The citation must be included in the bibliography.
  • Sources must always be documented, even if the material was freely accessible.
  • Copyright stays valid for 70 years after the author’s death.
  • In the case of edited works, the editor of the manuscript must contact the author(s) of the article and obtain permission to publish it in both the printed and the electronic publication. Ask your publisher for a ready-made model of a publishing permission.

Likewise, it is important that the editor and the author of an article make sure that the article does not contain material which cannot be published unless the author of the article has obtained permission from the copyright holder.

In scientific texts, short citations, critique and evaluation are legal and copyright policies do not concern them. However, the sources must always be documented.

Finishing and Proofreading

After making corrections according to the referee’s suggestions, the finished and carefully proofread work should be delivered to the layout designer.

  • Finish all the corrections which relate to contents and structure. Take notice of the supervisor’s suggestions, but remember to use your own judgment while correcting.
  • Make sure that the titles included in the table of contents are consistent with those within the text.
  • Use the spelling-checker of your word processor. Proofread the text one more time, or ask someone else to do it for you!
  • If you decide to use styles, use the default styles and fonts of Microsoft Word only. Do not change the styles manually.

References and Sources

  • Make sure that the references and sources are marked in a consistent manner throughout the manuscript. 
  • Check that the references are correctly marked in the bibliography. 
  • Likewise, make sure that the page numbering in each reference is correct. 
  • Number the footnotes of each chapter separately, starting from number 1. Always use the footnote function of your word processor, because it automatically numbers the footnotes. References should include last name, year of publication and page numbers. Example: Smith 2005, 13.

When the final layout is done, the references can be placed at the bottom of a page, the end of a chapter or the end of a book.

  • References which are placed within the text are put in brackets. When the reference is for a single sentence, it is placed within that sentence and the period is placed outside the brackets.
    Example:  You are going to learn about databases (Smith 2005, 23).

When the reference is for multiple sentences or for a whole chapter, the reference is placed after the sentence, outside the dot.
Example: The book tells you about references. It also comments on the issue of linguistics. Lastly, you will also learn how to write a better dissertation. (Smith 2005, 102-117.)

  • If one reference includes multiple sources, the sources are separated with a semi-colon.
    Example: (Smith 2003;2005)

The sources can be in alphabetical order, or they can be arranged according to their significance or publication date.

  • If the source has two authors, both of them are mentioned. Example: (Kaufman & Harrison 1986)

In case the source text has three or more authors, all the authors are mentioned in the first occurring reference. After that, mention the first one and add an abbreviation.
Example: (Robertson et al. 2005)

  • More good examples on reference practices can be found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, APA. 


  • The bibliography should be in alphabetical order by the authors’ last names. 
  • For international reference practices, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, APA. 
  • Examples on how to document various different sources (APA): 

For an entire book, use the following reference formats:

Author, A. A. (1967). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Author, A. A. (1997). Title of work. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx

Author, A. A. (2006). Title of work. doi:xxxxx

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (1986). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Other examples:

Light, M. A., & Light, I. H. (2008). The geographic expansion of Mexican immigration in the United States and its implications for local law enforcement. Law Enforcement Executive Forum Journal, 8(1), 73-82.

Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17-43). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Rampersad, T. (2005, June 8). Re: Disputed estimates of IQ [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from

File Saving

  • Always check with the layout designer that you are using the right kind of format and form of delivery. Your work can be delivered, for example, on a memory stick or emailed as an attachment.
  • Divide the file into multiple smaller ones, and save them all with different names (by chapters, names of the authors, etc.). Make sure that you have saved the final, corrected version of each file!
  • Save all images, figures and tables as separate files, but leave them also in their correct places within the text.
  • Print out the final, corrected version of your work. Also, remember to indicate the level of each heading (level 1, level 2 etc.).

Picture Material

  • Manner of delivery:

Always check with the layout designer that you are using the right form of delivery. Your work can be delivered, for example, on a memory stick or emailed as an attachment.

  • Scanning the images:
    1. Black-and-white images – Use the scanning resolution of 200dpi and Grayscale mode.
    2. Line-art – Use the scanning resolution of 1200dpi and Bitmap mode.
    3. Color images – Use the scanning resolution of 300dpi.
  • File format:              .tiff
  • Size: Scan the image in the size you want it to appear in your document, because more than 15% changes in the size later result in poor image quality.


Layout and Printing

After the manuscript has been sent to the layout designer, changes can no longer be made. The layout process usually takes 1 to 2 weeks, but it might take longer, if the manuscript sent to the layout designer was not thoroughly proofread and finalized.

The layout designer sends page proofs to the author for proofreading. At this point, it is still possible to correct misspellings and other small mistakes which do not affect the layout.

The approved page proofs are then sent to the printing house, from where the printed proof sheets are sent to either both the author and the layout designer, or to the layout designer only. This depends on the agreement. Once the printing process begins, possible mistakes made by the author can no longer be corrected. However, technical and other such errors which might have caused changes to the layout, are checked for. The printing process – which includes proofreading – usually takes 2 to 4 weeks. 


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Last update: 8.1.2018 13.04 Muokkaa

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