Joustavat tietotyöntekijät ja työaika-autonomian illuusio
Aineisto koostuu 19 asiantuntijatehtävissä työskentelevän naisen teemahaastatteluista, jotka on koottu Suomen Akatemian rahoittamassa “Flexlife – Temporal flexibility of work and its effect on later work and family life” -tutki- mushankkeessa (2014–2018)
The 12th Conference of the European Sociological Association (ESA)
25-28 August 2015, Prague, the Czech Republic
Pasi Pyöriä & Satu Ojala
School of Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Tampere, Finland
Working 24/7? Evidence from the Finnish Time Use Survey, 1979-2010
This study draws on Finnish time use data spanning the past three decades (1979-2010), with a focus on the prevalence of wage and salary earners’ work at different locations, namely at the employer’s facilities, at home, outside the home or the main place of work, and on the move. The diary data (N = 13,277) depicts respondents’ time budgets in ten-minute intervals around the clock. According to the results, work practices have remained surprisingly conventional. Although the absolute time spent at the respondents’ main place of work has been decreasing, the vast majority of employees still work at their employer’s facilities during conventional business hours, lending no support to the 24/7 society thesis. However, during a standard working week, alternating between different business facilities has become more common than before, pointing to the growing importance of distributed work arrangements
8-12 June 2015 Elsinore, Denmark
Tomi Oinas & Mia Tammelin
Department of Social Sciences and Philosophy, University of Jyväskylä, Finland
De-synchronized schedules and family time in the 24 hour economy
It is widely assumed that the 24/7-economy has radically changed the working time patterns and consequently the everyday life of families. These supposed changes are especially acute for dual-earner families. We are interested on how unsocial work hours affect to the time spent with children among dual-earner families.
Study uses a sub-sample of heterosexual dual-earner couples of two waves of Finnish Time Use surveys (1999/2000 and 2009/2010). The couple data allows investigation of the spouses working times simultaneously using detailed time use diaries. Unsocial working time is measured with work that takes place outside normal hours (in Finland between 8am and 4pm). We analyze the effect of unsocial hours to family time with two measures: time used for caring for children (active) and time spent with children (passive). Analyses were restricted to dual-earner couples with dependent children and to weekdays when both spouses were at work (N=484).
The effect of spouses unsocial working time on their time spend with children and other members of household was analysed with Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) using Structural Equation Models.
The time spend in paid work was the most important determinant of active and passive childcare for both men and women. The longer work day, the less time was spend caring for children or with them. The timing of work hours (unsocial) had no effect on active childcare. However, working at evenings (between 4-12pm) increased slightly the time men spend with children. For women we found no similar association. In addition, the more men (women) worked during evening the more time women (men) spend with children.
Our results indicate that working at unsocial hours does not have negative effects on the amount of time parents spend in active childcare or time spend with children. Actually, unsocial work hours increase slightly time spend with children. This might indicate the presence of so-called split-shift parenting where spouses arrange or choose their work schedules in order to decrease the need of non-parental childcare.
22nd International Symposium on Shiftwork and Working Time
8—12 June 2015, Elsinore, Denmark.
Anttila, Timo 1 & Nätti, Jouko 2 & Oinas, Tomi 1
1Dept. of Social Sciences and Philosophy, University of Jyväskylä, Finland
2 School of Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Tampere, Finland
CHANGING WORKING TIMES IN FINLAND 1977–2013
Changes in working time are usually described as flexibilisation, fragmentation and shift from industrial towards post-industrial working time regime. The extent and consequences of the post-industrial working time regime vary - besides gender - across socioeconomic groups. The aim of this paper is to examine changes in working times between men and women and between different socioeconomic groups.
Empirical analyses are based on representative Finnish Working Conditions Surveys (1977, 1984, 1990, 1997, 2003, 2008 and 2013). Sample size has been 3000-4500 employees. We examine changes in four dimensions of working time: the number of hours worked (duration), when (timing) the hours are worked, work-time intensity (tempo), and the degree of time autonomy individuals have over their working hours (time autonomy). We separate four comparison groups: male manual, female manual, male non-manual, female non-manual workers.
According to the results, changes in working times vary with socioeconomic status and gender. Differences between comparison groups have increased in duration and timing of working time during the period 1977–2008. After 2008 differences have slightly decreased. We found a convergent trend in perceived time pressure. Time autonomy has increased in all groups, but especially among non-manual workers.
22nd International Symposium on Shiftwork and Working Time
June 8-12, 2015, Elsinore, Denmark
Jouko Nätti1, Timo Anttila2, Tomi Oinas2, Satu Ojala1
1 School of Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Tampere, Finland
2 Department of Social Sciences and Philosophy, University of Jyväskylä, Finland
Employer- and employee-oriented working time flexibility and subsequent long-term sickness absence.
Working time flexibility can be divided into employer-oriented flexibility serving employers’ needs and employee-oriented arrangements serving employees’ needs. Employer-oriented flexibility aims to respond to fluctuations in demand and services, while employee-oriented flexibility aims to respond to personal preferences and family requirements. Earlier studies indicate that employer- and employee-oriented working time flexibility may have different outcomes for the workers. The aim of this study is to investigate the separate and combined associations of employer- and employee-oriented working time flexibility on long-term sickness absence during a three-year follow-up period.
The data is taken from the Finnish Quality of Work Life Survey 2003 (n=3114), a representative sample of Finnish 15 to 64 year-old employees, combined with a register-based follow-up from Statistics Finland, covering the years 2002 to 2008. In the 2003 survey employees were asked about their working time arrangements. Employer-oriented working time flexibility was measured with three items by asking respondents e.g. how often they had to be flexible in working hours dictated by their tasks or their superior (Cronbach’s alpha 0.74). Employee-oriented working time flexibility was measured with four items by asking respondents e.g. to what extent they could use flexible working hours sufficiently for their own needs (Cronbach’s alpha 0.75). The participants were classified into quartiles to indicate lower and higher levels of employer- and employee-oriented working time flexibility. The register data included information on long-term (more than 10 days) sickness absence. A negative binomial (NB) model was used in the analysis of long-term sickness absence days between 2004 and 2008. The results were adjusted for several background and work-related factors and controlled for baseline absenteeism in 2002.
Employer-oriented working time flexibility increased long-term sickness absence, while employee-oriented working time flexibility decreased long-term sickness absence. Employee-oriented working time flexibility did not moderate the effects of the employer-oriented working time flexibility, i.e. employee-oriented working time flexibility decreased sickness absence equally in the groups of low and high level of employer-oriented working time flexibility.
The result showing that employee-oriented working time flexibility decreased long-term sickness absence indicates that employee-friendly working time may play an important role in the health of employees. Consequently, establishments which use employee-oriented working time flexibility as a human resource instrument may benefit from reduced absenteeism.